LABOREM EXERCENSE(On Human Work)RS HISTORICAL CONTEXTIn his first encyclical addressing social issues LaboremExercens (On Human Work) Pope John Paul II . Enciclica Laborem exercens. Main Author: Chiappetta, Luigi. Related Names: John Paul II Pope Language(s): Italian. Published: Napoli: Edizioni dehoniane, c Subjects. Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) / Juan Pablo II ; autor, Equipo DEI “Texto completo de la enciclica ; un comentario desde América Latina.”.
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Thus work bears a particular mark of man and of humanity, the mark of a person operating within laborrm community of persons. In this context it should be emphasized that, on a more general level, the whole labour process must be organized and adapted in such a way as to respect the requirements of the person and his or encicliac forms of life, above all life in the home, taking into account the individual’s age and sex.
Work understood as a “transitive” activity, that is to say an activity beginning in the human subject and directed towards an external object, presupposes a specific dominion by man over “the earth”, and in its turn it confirms and develops this dominion. It is a fact that in many societies women work in nearly every sector of life. They embrace equally the past ages of civilization and economy, as also the whole of modern reality and future phases of development, which are perhaps already to some extent laborme to take shape, though for the most part they are still almost unknown to man and hidden from him.
Opposition between labour and capital does not spring from the structure of the production sxercens or from the structure of exrrcens economic process.
The two cannot be separated now, but we can still find the uplifting and fulfilling aspect of work, which John Paul names industriousness. Laborem exercens begins with a scriptural argument that work is more than just an activity or a commodity, but an essential part of human nature.
It must not be abused; it must not be abused especially for “political” purposes. They must let themselves execrens guided by an exact diagnosis of the complex situations and of the influence exercised by natural, historical, civil and other such circumstances.
Catalog Record: Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) | Hathi Trust Digital Library
Man has to subdue the earth and dominate it, because as the “image of God” he is a person, that is to say, a subjective being capable of acting in a planned and rational way, capable of deciding about himself, and with a tendency to self-realization. Here too the criterion for these pacts and agreements must more and more be the criterion of human work considered as a fundamental right of all human beings, work which gives similar rights to all those who work, in such a way that the living standard of the workers in the different societies will less and less show those disturbing differences which are unjust and are apt to provoke even violent reactions.
Without hiding the fact that this is a complex and difficult task, it is to be hoped that a correct concept of labour in the subjective sense will produce a situation which will make it possible for disabled people to feel that they are not cut off from the working world or dependent upon society, but that they are full-scale subjects of work, useful, respected for their human dignity and called to contribute to the progress and welfare of their families and of the community according to their particular capacities.
When we enciclicz to consider the moral rights, corresponding to this obligation, of every person with regard to work, we must always keep before our eyes the whole vast range of points of reference in which the labour of every working subject is manifested. John Paul recommends instead a philosophy of personalism.
Rational planning and the proper organization of human labour in keeping with individual societies and States should also facilitate the discovery of the right proportions between the different kinds of employment: Work is one of the characteristics that distinguish man from the rest of creatures, whose activity for sustaining their lives cannot be called work. However, it can easily become an occasion for various forms of exploitation or injustice and as a result influence the labour policy of individual States; and finally it can influence the individual worker, who is the proper labogem of labour.
Catalog Record: Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) | Hathi Trust Digital Library
Laborem exercens Sollicitudo rei socialis Centesimus annus Evangelium vitae. Finding himself in a system thus conditioned, the direct employer fixes working conditions below the objective requirements of the workers, especially if he himself wishes to obtain the highest possible profits from the business which he runs or from the businesses which he runs, in the case of a situation of “socialized” ownership of the means of production.
The criterion of full employment laboren only be achieved through planning and coordination among all the indirect employers, and a better coordination of education with employment. It can be a question of general unemployment or of unemployment in certain sectors of work. Following tlle lines laid dawn by the Encyclical Rerum Novarum and many later documents of the Church’s Magisterium, it must be frankly recognized that the reaction against the system of injustice and harm that cried to heaven for vengeance 13 and that weighed heavily upon workers in that labore, of rapid industrialization was justified from the point of view of social morality.
During the years that separate us from the publication of the Encyclical Rerum Novarum, the social question has not ceased to engage the Church’s attention. All that has been said above on the enciclixa of the indirect employer is aimed at defining these relationships more exactly, by showing the many forms of conditioning within which these relationships are indirectly formed.
Furthermore it must encicliica be forgotten that, when essential community services are in question, they must in every case be ensured, if necessary by means of appropriate legislation. In the modern period, from the beginning of the industrial age, the Christian truth about work had to oppose the various trends of materialistic and economistic thought.
As a person he works, he performs various actions belonging to the work process; independently of their objective content, these actions must all serve to realize his humanity, to fulfil the calling to be a person that is his by reason of his very humanity.
The disproportionate distribution of wealth and poverty and the existence of some countries and continents that are developed and of others that are not call for a levelling out and for a search for ways to ensure just development for all.
These rights must be encciclica in the broad context of human rights as a whole, which are connatural with man, and many of which are proclaimed by various laborme organizations and increasingly guaranteed by the individual States for their citizens Respect for this broad range of human rights constitutes the fundamental condition for peace in the modern world: They cease to be the property of a certain social group, namely the private owners, and become the property of organized society, coming under the administration and direct control of another group of people, namely those who, though not owning them, from the fact of exercising power in society manage them on the level of the whole national or the local economy.
Everything contained in the concept of capital in the strict sense is only a collection of things.
To do so would be to practise a serious form of discrimination, that of the strong and healthy against the weak and sick. Views Read Edit View history. Nevertheless, these two aspects of work are linked to one another and are mutually complementary in various points. This page was last edited on 24 Februaryat But at the same time, one cannot fail to note that in the process of this development not only do new forms of work appear but also others disappear. The Church is firmly committed to this cause, for she considers it her mission, her service, a proof of her fidelity to Christ, so that she can truly be the “Church of the poor”.
The break occurred in such a way that labour was separated from capital and set in opposition to it, and capital was set in opposition to labour, as though they were two impersonal forces, two production factors juxtaposed in the same “economistic” perspective.
He urges unions to view their struggle as a positive struggle for social justice, rather than a struggle against an opponent. These words refer to the sometimes heavy toil that from then onwards has accompanied human work; but they do not alter the fact that work is the means whereby man achieves that “dominion” which is proper to him over the visible world, by “subjecting” the earth.
In all cases of this sort, in every kaborem situation of this type, there is a confusion or even a reversal of the order laid down from the beginning by the words of the Book of Genesis: All these rights, together with the need for the workers themselves to secure them, give oaborem to yet another encicliica In the final analysis, both those who work and those who manage the means of production or who own them must in some way be united in this community.
A labour system can be right, in the sense of being in conformity with the very essence of the issue, and in the sense of being intrinsically true and also morally legitimate, if in its very basis it overcomes the opposition between labour and capital through an encilcica at being shaped in accordance with the principle put forward above: This entirely positive and creative, educational and meritorious character of man’s work must be the basis for the judgments and decisions being made today in its regard laborek spheres that include human rights, as is evidenced by the international declarations on work and the many labour codes prepared either by the competent legislative institutions in the various countries or by organizations devoting their social, or scientific and social, activity to the problems of work.
The conditions of the rural population and of agricultural work vary enciclicca place to place, and the social position of agricultural workers differs from country to country.