This manual is part of the FM series, which describes a contemporary. Opposing Force (OPFOR) that exists for the purpose of training U.S. forces. publications in the former Field Manual [FM] series will be TCs outline an OPFOR than can cover the entire spectrum of military and. First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules . Likewise, some types of OPFOR described in FM can.
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During extended halts, the OPFOR lays landline, and uses existing telephone networks and cellular systems whenever possible. At the same time, counterreconnaissance activities attempt to disrupt, destroy, or at the least deceive the enemy’s reconnaissance plan. Armor- and mechanized-based forces are the norm throughout the industrialized world. The remaining 12 gm 14 hours are spent as follows:. Such an OPFOR should portray the specified, real-world threat force with the greatest possible fidelity ofpor on the best available classified and unclassified information.
Daily opfpr performance calculations assume that units march from 10 to 12 hours of each day. In general, army group, opfro, and corps assets provide early warning to subordinate air defense units.
There may also be more organized forces such as internal security forces or regular military units. Shortened timelines resulting from closure with the enemy do not allow for this in most cases. A severe disruption of either form of opdor might render a whole division or more ineffective. In actual practice, these distances can vary depending on the makeup of the marching forces, the routes available, and other circumstances.
Before war begins, most or all of the OPFOR’s strategic and operational first echelons occupy positions within the State, perhaps hundreds of km from the border. Sometimes certain threat information may not be available at any level of classification.
It constitutes a baseline for training or developing U. Some elements may leapfrog ahead to defend obstacle crossings and choke points. Enter Your Email Address. They normally conduct set-piece operations, integrating arms at the tactical level. Units continuously dedicate time for the effective use of cover, concealment, and camouflage during movement and at halts. Ipfor can be any specific foreign nation or organization with intentions and military capabilities that suggest it could become an adversary or challenge the national security opflr of the United States or its allies.
Army-level nets are used minimally, primarily for air and NBC warning. The outcome of initial operations, which can shape the rest of a war, usually depends on which side wins the race to mobilize its forces, concentrate them in the area of conflict, and deploy tm for battle.
Combined road and rail movement, with tracked and heavy equipment transported by rail and the rest traveling by road, is an optimum solution for distances under km. Tracked vehicles, and heavy equipment such as SSM launchers, usually move on one route preferably pavedwhile wheeled vehicles move on another route possibly an unimproved dirt road.
File:FM 7-100.1 – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December 2004).pdf
Aside from the Ground Forces, the State’s armed forces may include any or all of the following components:. When oppfor by an adversary of similar capabilities, an infantry-based OPFOR can conduct conventional, force-oriented combat. Once a decision is made, rapid mobilization and movement of units assumes primary importance.
The OPFOR establishes traffic control posts at start lines, obstacle crossings, road junction, crossroads, bypasses around population centers, and areas surrounding employed CPs.
There can, of course be many variations on this theme. A medium-size infantry-based force may have one or more standing armies or corps and the capability to integrate forces at the lower end of the operational level.
Whenever possible, the main CP moves on a route separate from the forward CP, while the forward CP exercises control from its position in the next daily rest area. Thus, the length of the army’s first-echelon columns, including forward-deployed combat and logistic support elements, is about km. The OPFOR needs to hold these at constant readiness to execute important tasks, starting with the long-range fire strike.
With seven, it can deploy three divisions in the first echelon. Large armor- and mechanized-based forces can conduct large-scale, combined arms operations.
Medium and large infantry-based forces may also possess significant armor- and mechanized-based formations. Specific emphasis shifts as OPFOR units prepare for their initial movement, and as they transition between movement and halts.
Second echelons and CPs normally opforr on the main axis at either level.
The scenario should also include, among other things: Both types can field self-propelled artillery and multiple rocket launchers; artillery-delivered precision munitions; medium-to-heavy tanks; and limited thermal capability. OPFOR standards do not require traffic control posts if the march route is less than km long.
FM Armor- And Mechanized-Based Opposing Force Operational Art – Inroduction
Moving from the final assembly area to the line of commitment, first-echelon divisions can spread out more to observe proper tactical intervals see Figure There are two methods for ensuring this.
Opdor operational art describes how army groups, armies, and corps conduct operations. They can support training in the field, in classrooms, or in automated simulations. If not, the infantry-based forces of FM may better fit training needs.
The primary goal of information warfare IW activities during the march is to minimize the enemy’s ability to collect information and analyze the OPFOR’s force structure, movement, and objectives. See Chapter 7 for more information.
Activities supporting deception, such as radar corner reflectors, deception jammers, and dummy radio nets also contribute to the ESO counterreconnaissance effort. Field Manual depicts the forces of a developed country that devotes extensive resources to maintaining a military capability that rivals that of the United States. Traffic control and constant cover against air attack are essential, especially at obstacle crossings and chokepoints and in assembly areas.
The OPFOR uses administrative march columns when the chance of contact with the enemy is nil, or at least confined to airborne or heliborne forces.
Army groups, armies, and corps can vary widely in strengths and capabilities. In addition, the OPFOR undertakes a number of operational security measures to reduce the amount of information the enemy may gather, such as This can help to beat the enemy to the punch in a meeting engagement and to surprise a defending enemy through the speed with which the OPFOR can mount an attack. In this case, the State’s military structure still consists primarily of the Ground Forces.